Микробиом ротовой полости и здоровье человека

Островская, С.С. (2018) Микробиом ротовой полости и здоровье человека. Вісник проблем біології і медицини, В.1Т.2 (143). pp. 35-38. ISSN 2077-4214

Мікробіом ротової порожнини і здоров’я людини.pdf

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Приводятся данные о микробиоме ротовой полости человека, необходимые для понимания здоровья и болезней человека в целом. С помощью молекулярных методов было дентифицировано около 280 бактериальных видов из ротовой полости, определены многочисленные синтетические гены, связанные с микробиомом человека. Выявлены основные метаболические классы пептидных малых молекул (РSM), влияние которых на здоровье людей в настоящее время интенсивно исследуется. The above review of the literature cites the results of the study on the microbiome of the human oral cavity. The term “microbiome” was proposed by D. Lederberg “to designate the ecological community of commensal, symbiotic and pathogenic microorganisms that simply permeate the surrounding space. Understanding of human health and diseases is impossible without full identification of the collective microbiome of the human body as a whole, including identification and description of the phylogeny of the most common oral taxons. It is recognized that caries, periodontitis, otitis as well as many systemic diseases are caused by symbiosis of organisms in the biofilm, and not by one pathogen. These data are consistent with the provisions of the project «Human Microbiome» which considers that it is necessary to identify all the basic organisms that make up the human microbiome and that there must be tools for this identification. Each human oral cavity has a unique bacterial diversity, on average consisting of about 150 bacterial taxons. Approximately 280 bacterial species of the oral cavity were identified by molecular methods, mainly using cloning studies based on 16S rRNA genes. It was shown that in each community of microorganisms there can be both competition and interconnection, therefore research on microbiome should include a deeper knowledge of the molecular mechanisms supporting its complex network of functions. The «language of interactions» host-microbiome must be identified quantitatively and, ultimately, characterized functionally. There have been identified numerous biosynthetic genes linked, inter alia, with human oral microbiome, which encode the main metabolic classes of peptide small molecules (PSM). The obtained results show the complex expression of PSM, whose role in human health and in the development of the disease is as yet unknown and is currently being intensively studied. Several PSMs such as mutanobactins, salivaricines and proteases that mediate antagonistic interactions between bacteria in the oral cavity are isolated and structurally identified. However, the mechanisms that initiate the biosynthesis of these PSMs in the complex host-microbiome in vivo interactions are unknown yet and are currently being intensively studied.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: Оральний мікробіом, молекулярні дослідження. Оральный микробиом, молекулярные исследования. Оral microbiome, molecular studies.
Subjects: Medical Biology
Divisions: Departments > Department of Medical Biology, Botany and Pharmacognosy
Depositing User: Анастасия Жигар
Date Deposited: 22 Nov 2018 12:22
Last Modified: 22 Nov 2018 12:22
URI: http://repo.dma.dp.ua/id/eprint/3585

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