Вплив важких металів на морфофункціональний стан печінки (огляд літератури)

Нефьодова, О.О. and Білишко, Д.В. (2018) Вплив важких металів на морфофункціональний стан печінки (огляд літератури). Вісник проблем біології і медицини, Вип.1 (т. 2). pp. 27-30. ISSN 2077-4214

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Abstract

For industrial areas, the problem of contamination by heavy metals, which dangerously affects the human organism, changing its properties and functions, is especially relevant. The change in the environment in industrialized countries prompts an intensive study of the impact of environmental factors on biological objects. Among the most dangerous technogenic pollutants of the environment, heavy metals occupy a priority position, in the first place – lead, cadmium, mercury. Over the past decades, in the context of increasing the negative impact of the environmental environment, the interest of specialists from practically all medical units to the adaptive capacity of the adult organism and the embryo and the problems of possible defects of development in response to the action of heavy metal compounds has increased significantly. Cadmium compounds today are a fraction of heavy metals that are in biological systems and form the ecological crisis of the planet, with the greatest risk of cadmium poisoning associated with the activities of workers in the metallurgical industry and in the manufacture of accumulators. Cadmium as a pollutant of the environment and classical toxicant continues to remain at the center of attention not only ecologists, toxicologists and hygienists, but also pathologists and clinicians representing various branches of medicine. According to the literature, toxic and therapeutic doses of some substances have been experimentally determined, but to date, unexplored doses remain harmful to embryos, as well as the unspecified are the range of developmental defects that arise under the influence of one or another xenobiotic. An urgent task is to determine the morphological changes that occur in the body under the action of cadmium compounds in both prenatal and postnatal ontogenesis. To reveal the spectrum of violations under the influence of cadmium salts in different doses on the morphological structure of parenchymal organs of animals and on the general course of embryogenesis is a problem that is currently under investigation. Cadmium, when it enters the organism, has a high migration rate, biochemical activity, is characterized by a polytropic toxic effect and the ability to cumulate in organs and tissues. Data on morphological changes and biochemical mechanisms underlying the development of cadmium intoxication are fragmented and inadequate, which does not allow to create a modern concept of mechanisms of influence of this heavy metal. The purpose of the study was to analyze scientific literature on morphogenetic changes in the liver in the prenatal and postnatal ontogenesis under the influence of cadmium compounds. The mechanism of toxic effects of cadmium to the organism is associated with the formation of metalotinine proteins and the interaction with other trace elements. The analysis of scientific data on the influence of cadmium on the histological structure of the liver showed that in the early period of cadmium intoxication the general structure of the liver lobules was not disturbed, hepatocytes of the liver parts in the state of edema, their nuclei have different sizes. With the duration of intoxication, the depth of the dystrophic processes in hepatocytes increased, there was a discombection of the liver plates. Dystrophic changes in hepatocytes developed during adaptive-compensatory processes gradually developed into destructive disturbances, manifested by changes in the structure of mitochondria, activation of lysosomes, and the formation of partial necrosis regions. At the ultramicroscopic level in liver tissues under conditions of cadmium intoxication, deformation of nuclei of hepatocytes whose contours were vorticular was observed, a sharp redistribution of chromatin was observed in the nucleoplasm. But the effects of different doses of cadmium on the embryonic liver remain unexplored. It is not possible to directly monitor the formation of human developmental disorders, therefore, with the help of induced experimental models it becomes possible to analyze morphogenetic changes during embryogenesis. In connection with the above, the study of the effects of cadmium salts on embryogenesis and liver development is relevant. Среди наиболее опасных техногенных загрязнителей окружающей среды приоритетное положение занимают тяжелые металлы, в первую очередь – свинец, кадмий, ртуть. В течение последних десятилетий в условиях усиления негативного влияния экологического окружения существенно вырос интерес специалистов практически всех подразделений медицины к адаптационным возможностям взрослого организма и эмбриона и проблем возникновения возможных пороков развития в ответ на действие соединений тяжелых металлов. Важным аспектом новейших научных разработок является поиск новых биоантогонистов соединениям кадмия и других тяжелых металлов. Непосредственное наблюдение за формированием нарушений развития у человека невозможно, поэтому с помощью индуцированных экспериментальных моделей становится возможным анализ морфогенетических изменений в течение эмбриогенеза. В связи с вышеизложенным изучение влияния солей кадмия на эмбриогенез и развитие печени является актуальным.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: DOI 10.29254/2077-4214-2018-1-2-143-27-30
Uncontrolled Keywords: cadmium, heavy metals, embryogenesis, liver, experiment; кадмій, важкі метали, ембріогенез, печінка, експеримент; кадмий, тяжелые металлы, эмбриогенез, печень, эксперимент.
Subjects: Anatomy
Divisions: Departments > Department of Clinical Anatomy, Anatomy and Operative Surgery
Depositing User: Елена Шрамко
Date Deposited: 24 Jul 2018 07:58
Last Modified: 24 Jul 2018 07:58
URI: http://repo.dma.dp.ua/id/eprint/3018

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